Kievan Rus and the Old Polish state: historical parallels



In the 7th13th centuries the Slavs achieved significant success in the development of production forces. At the same time, the process of dismantling the traditional, primeval order was taking place in their environment, accompanied by the formation of territorial community; the property and social differences were getting deeper; the role of the tribal authority, which had executive and military power in their own arms, was increasing; the elements of state administration were being formed. The tribal council remained the top authority body of Slavonic tribes, which elected own governor – the prince, who governed the every day matters and army. Later the functions of a military governor were given to voivods.

These socio-economic and political changes were accompanied by the formation of big tribal unions, which are called ethnic groups or territories, politico-geographical, or politico-tribal unions in historical literature.[1] The creation of tribal unions prepared the ground for the appearance of the first Slavonic states.

The names of Slavonic tribal unions, which preceded the creation of the Old Polish state, are present in the so-called „Bavarian geographer”, compiled by an unknown author in Bavaria about 843., when, according to the Verdun agreement, the grandchildren of Charles the Great divided the Frank Empire into three parts. Counting the tribal unions to the north of the Danube, he mentions the Uelunzani (Polish: Wieluńczanie), who lived near the mouth of the Oder; the Prissani (Polish: Pyrzyczanie) of the Lower Oder[2]; the Glopeani (Polish: Goplanie) inhabiting the vicinity of lake Goplo in Kuyavia; the Sleenzane (Polish: Ślężanie) in the Lower Silesia; the Dadosesani (Polish: Dziadoszanie) of north western Silesian region; the Opolini (Polish: Opolanie) in central Silesia; the Golensizi (Polish: Golęszyce) of the Upper Silesia; the Vuislane (Polish: Wiślanie) of the Upper Vistula basin and the Lendizi (Lędzianie), who, according to G. Lovmyansky, inhabited Sandomierz–Lublin area.[3] The Lendizi, whose name derives from the words „land” (the farming land) or „leda” (Liada), are also mentioned in the work of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII (Porphyrogennetos) „On the Administration of the Empire” (mid-10th century). Many scientists claim that the ethnonym „Lach” derives directly from the word „Lendizi”, which was used by the Ancient Russian sources with reference to all the Polish tribes. The derivatives of this word are also Lithuanian Lenkas and Hungarian Lengyel.[4]

It is considered that „Bavarian geographer” did not include all the tribal unions of western Slavs, who were formed in the middle of the 9th century on historically Polish lands.[5]

The Dulebs were the eastern neighbors of the Lendizi, whose territories – according to the toponymic data as well as to archeological excavations – covered the basin of the western Bug and the San in the west, the Dnieper in the east, the Prypyat in the North, the pool of the Upper Dniester in the south.[6] Numerous researchers maintain that in the 6th century the Dulebs created a strong tribal union on the territories of Volhynia and the Pre-Carpathian region, which they connect with the beginning of Slavonic state in Eastern Europe.[7] At the beginning of the 7th century, it was destroyed by the Avars, who „[…] were fighting against the Slavs. And the Dulebs were repressed as well as the Slavs, and there was violence above the Dulebs’ women: if an Avar needed to go, no horse was allowed to be harnessed, as three, four or five women were harnessed and drove an Avar; and in such a way the Dulebs were tortured. The Avars were big in their built and proud in their minds, and they were destroyed by God, and all of them died, and not even a single Avar survived; there is still a proverb in Ruthenia; «perished as Avars», and there is neither the tribe, nor the heir”.[8]

The followers of the Dulebs were the Volhynians, whose existence researchers connect to the name of the city Volhynia, which was located on the cape between the western Bug and its branch Huchva (the contemporary town Zamchysko in Grudek Nadbuzhsky in the south-western Poland.) The chronicles call them also „the Buzhans” (from the name of the Bug river).

The Croatians were south-western neighbors of the Dulebs. Their monuments are known in the San area and in the basin of the Upper Bug, the Upper Dniester area, the Carpathians and other regions, which are now located on the territories of Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary. L. Niederle assumed the existence of some ancient quasi-state organization founded by Croatians, with its center in Cracow. It may well be that this formation is also mentioned by the Arab sources under the name Hordab (Dzhervab, Dzhravat, Hrvab, Hravat)[9]. In 560., the aggressive Avars attacked the Croatians’ land, which caused their partial migration (so-called „white Croatians”) to Balkan Peninsula and to the upper part of the Elba. In a written document issued by the Prague Episcopate in 1086 they are mentioned as one of the Czech tribes.[10] Some Polish scientist opine that even after the attacks of the Avars the Croatian tribal union continued to exist in the Pre-Carpathians, and split up into several separate tribes (including the Vistulani and the Lendizi) only on the border of the 8th–9th centuries after the death of the leader Crak.[11] Taking into consideration the above mentioned we can conclude that tightly connected branches of Croatian union participated in the formation of many modern Slavonic people later on – the Polish, the Ukrainians, the Czech, the Slovaks, the Croatians.

The Drevlyans were western neighbors of the Volhyniayans, whose name derives from the forest territory („as they sat in forests”)[12]. The city Iskorosten was the tribal center of the Drevlyans.

The Polans were located to southern east of the Drevlyans, according to the words of the chronicler Nestor, they were „smart and wise”.[13] Kyiv was the center of the Polans tribal union. It’s interesting that the experts-archeologists still did not manage to find own „features of the Polans” among the things of the Ancient Russian monuments. It’s explained by the fact that the Polans union was formed on the basis of different tribes, and Kyiv played a role of inter-tribal center at the early stage of its history.[14]

The Siveryans lived to the east of the Polans, who, according to the words of the chronicler Nestor, they „sat on the Desna, the Sema, and the Sula and were called sivera”[15]. Researchers indicate that the impact of Iranian component is sensible in their culture. The assumption was expressed that even the ethnonym „sivera” has Iranian roots.[16] The Alans significantly influenced the formation of anthropologic content of the Ancient Russian population of the Dnieper left bank – the heirs of the Siveryans.[17] The Siveryan tribal union actively participated in the colonizing of the Balkans.

South-eastern territories of Eastern Slavonic tribes was inhabited by the Tivertsi. They occupied the Lower Dnieper area and the left bank of the Lower Danube. The other tribe was the Ulichs, who lived on the Tyasmyn river, in the middle of the Southern Bug and Lower Dnieper area.

Other Eastern Slavonic tribes – the Dregovichs (between the Prypyat and Western Dvina), the Polotians, who occupied the pool of the Polot – the branch of the Western Dvina; the Radymichs (between the upper area of the Dnieper and Sozh); the Kryvits, whose area covered the upper part of the Dnieper, the Western Dvina and the Volga; the Viatychs, who lived in the upper and middle part of the Oka and its branch the Moscow River and the Slovenes or Ilmenski Slovenes, who occupied the pool of Ilmen lake and the Volchov river were located to the north of the Ukrainian lands on the territory of Belarus and the European part of Russia.

It’s obviously that a special role in the creation of Old Polish state and Kievan Rus belongs to tribal unions, who had the same name – the Polans. The coincidence of these ethnonyms was noticed by researchers a long time ago, some of them even tried to explain the theory about common roots of the big Polish and the Dnieper Polans. The opinion about the formation of the Polans union which took place in Volhynia in the 6th7th centuries, and soon afterwards it split up into two groups of tribes, which migrated in different directions: one to the Dnieper, the other one to the west of the Vistula and the Oder.[18]

The coincidence of the chronicles about the creation of outstanding monuments of the Medieval Polish and Ancient Russian literature – the already mentioned chronicle „The story of the past years”, whose first edition was written by Nestor, and the „Chronicles of Gallus Anonymus”, written by a foreigner, who arrived in Poland at young age (obviously from France) and lived there till death. Both works were written at the beginning of the 12th century and cover the history of their countries from the ancient times to 1113, when Nestor completed his titanic work, and the author of the „Chronicles” abandoned his story to die soon afterwards. The first and the second work are based on national legends and stories, which deal with the creation of the Ancient Russian and Polish state; the documents of the Prince’s archives, which were of free access for both authors; the most ancient chronicle stories, which have not been kept till nowadays; the stories of the immediate participants of historical actions and own observations.

According to written and archeological sources, „the Ruthenian land” on the border of the 9th10th centuries was the center of the Ancient Russian state, so those eastern Slavonic regions which later joined Kyiv, Chernigiv, Pereyaslav, Galicia-Volhynia Duchies. About half a dozen of cities mentioned in chronicles are known in its area, the most western of which were located in the upper part of the San and the middle part of the Western Bug, northern – on the left bank of the Prypyat and the middle part of the Desna, eastern – in the upper part of the Seym, southern – in the upper part of the Southern Bug and Poross.[19] Kyiv was the main center of „Russian land” – the former capital of the Polans’ tribal union, Chernigiv and Pereyaslav. Within „Russian land” ethnographic and linguistic features of Ukrainian ethnos were formed, the ethnonym „Ukraine” is first mentioned, which semantics connected with the meaning „a piece of land”, „tribal territory”, „principality”[20]. Telling about the death of the Pereyaslav prince Volodymyr Glibovych in 1187, who was known by his fight with the nomads – polovtsy, the writer of chronicle noted: „And all of the pereyaslavtsy cried for him […], and Ukraine will strongly regret about him”.[21] During the next centuries the name „Ukraine”, which was used for quite a while together with the ethnonym „Russ”, gradually spread on all historical Ukrainian lands, and finally remained only in the 19th century. As far as the contemporary name of Russia and derived from it ethnonyms „Russian” are concerned, it appeared only at the beginning of the 18th century, when the Tsar Peter I, who was proclaimed to be an emperor, prohibited to use the names „Moscowia” and „Moscow Kingdom”. It was done from ideological point of view: Moscowia, was renamed as Russia, was proclaimed the legal follower of Kievan Rus and „the collector of Big, Small, and White Russia (Ruthenia) lands”.

Northern part of Big Poland above the Varta – the area of the Polan tribal union with centers in Krusvica, Gniezno and Poznan[22] became the territory and political core of the Old Polish state. The ethnonym „the Polans”, Researchers derive this word from the word „pole” (a field). It appears in the form of „Polonie” on the pages of the work written by St. Adalbert, a Christian saint, the supporter of the Old Polish state, who was killed in 997 during his trip to the lands of the Prussian heathens. Soon afterwards we come across this word in the form „Poleni” in the chronicle of the bishop Titmar Merzeburg. For some time the newly formed state was called Polanska, and from the 11th century – Polska. The name of Poland „Polska” appeared from the adjective in the word-combination „Polska ziemia”. Gniezno was the first capital of the Old Polish state and continued to be so until the end of the 1030s.[23]

Many historians consider that the first Proto-Ukrainian state on the bank of the Dnieper existed long before 882, when the prince of the Barbarians Oleg from the Rurykovychs dynasty occupied Kyiv by means of sly actions, having killed the Kievan Princes Askold and Dir – the last representatives of a local duchy dynasty of the Polans’ tribal union – the Kyevych (from the legendary builder of Kyiv, the Prince Kyi). Telling about the foundation of the capital of Ukraine, the chronicler Nestor, because of the absence of written evidence had to use folk stories, and this fact even let him insist on Kyi’s having been born a prince, as well as his brothers Schek and Horyv and his sister Lybid. He wrote: „Others, who are not in the know, say that Kyi used to live near Kyiv on the other side of the Dnieper. And this Kyi was a prince in his dynasty, and he went to the Tsar whom I do not know, but I know that he was told to have a great honour from the Tsar”[24].

The story of Gallus Anonymus is also based on folk traditions about the ancestors of the prince Meshko I – his father Semomysl, grandfather Leshek (Lestka) and grandfather Semovit – the son of a wheeler Pyast, who overthrown the prince Popel in Gniezno. The experts-historians suggested serious arguments for the benefit of true folk story-telling about the first representatives of the Pyasts dynasty.[25]

The process of Kievan Rus formation began at the end of the 9th century–at the beginning of the 10th century, when the prince Oleg (882912) united the tribal unions of the Polans, the Drevlyans, the Siveryans, the Radymychs around Kyiv, and went successfully to Byzantium, where his warriors, according to the words of the chronicles writer, „[…] hung own shields on the gates [Tsargorod – S. S.] as a symbol of victory”.[26] The descendant of Oleg – Prince Igor continued the policy of his ancestor: he subordinated the ulychys and tyvertsi and went to Byzantium twice, having perished during the fight with the Drevlyans, where he was trying to gather tribute for the second time. Igor’s wife, the princess Olga cruelly punished the Drevlyans, but she had to regulate the process of gathering tribute, having strictly defined its size. The son of Igor and Olga, the prince Svyatoslav, who was called „a Cossack on a throne” by an outstanding Ukrainian historian Mychaylo Grushevsky, spent all his life in fights with enemies, having conquered the Viatichs and destroyed the Khazarian Khaganate – a powerful state formation in the area between the Don and Volga, which was paid a tribute for some time by the Viatichs, Siveryans and the Polans before the creation of Kievan Rus. Prince Svyatoslav occupied the lands of the Ossetians and the Cherkes in Northern Caucasus. He attacked several times the area behind the Danube reaching the lands of Byzantium, where he wanted to transfer his capital. The courageous warrior was killed by nomads – the Pechenegs: „In the summer of 6481 [972]. And Svyatoslav came to the borders and he was attacked by Kurya, the prince of the Pechenegs, and he killed Svyatoslav. And his head was taken, and a cup was made of his skull, and having covered it with gold, they drank from it.”[27]

During the times of the son of Svyatoslav – Volodymyr (9801015) Kievan Rus achieved the biggest power and prosperity. He finally subordinated the rebelling Viatichs and the Radymychs, expanded the borders of own state in the west, led a successful fight with the Pechenegs. At the beginning of the 11th century Kievan Rus occupied the huge territories of Eastern Europe from the Ladoga river in the north to Tamans peninsula in the south, from the Carpathians in the west to Povolzhya and the pool of the Oka river in the east.

The first mentioning of the Old Polish state, which dates back to 960, belongs to the german chronicle-writer Vidukind from Korve. He tells about the collision of the prince Meshko I (about 960992), who at that time ruled over Great Poland, Mazovia, Kuyavia, and the Lubusz Land, inhabited by the Veleti in western area of the sea. Having met cruel resistance of the Veleti coalition, he made a union agreement with the emperor of German Empire Otton I, according to which the rights of the Old Polish state were recognized on the land to the east from the Oder river.[28] Simultaneously Meshko I included the small Poland and Silesia into his state, which Czech possessed from the middle of the 9th century. During his governing the territory of the Old Polish state was increased more than twice.

The successor of Meshko I, Boleslav Courageous I (9921025) continued the policy of his father, having expanded the borders of his possessions in the west and in the east. He was actively engaged in internal affairs of the neighbors, supporting his friends in fight for power. In April, 2015 Boleslav the Courageous proclaimed himself king, and was crowned in the capital of his state – Gniezno. Soon after this event, which caused a negative reaction of Rome, he died.

The official implementation of Christianity in Polish state by Meshko I and in Kievan Rus by Volodymyr Svyatoslavovych had a great historical meaning. Both governors considered that the refusal from heathenism would strengthen the international positions and would facilitate the internal consolidation of their states. Historical sources testify that in the second half of the 10th century Christianity was already well-known within both: a Polish state and Kievan Rus. The development of relationships between the prince Meshko I with the governor of German Empire Otton I and the Czech prince Boleslav as well as tight contacts of the Ruthenians with Byzantium (the first known Christian was the princess Olga, who was baptized in Constantinople during the meeting with the visantian emperor) facilitated Christianity. The activity of Christian missioners from Czech lands in Silesia and small Poland had also an important meaning, the opening of Cracow cathedral devoted to the patron of Czech Saint Vatslav[29] was the consequence. According to the testimony of „Czech chronicles” by Kozma Pragsky (1086), they were eager to spread it on Volhynia.[30]

In 966 Meshko I married a daughter of Czech prince Boleslav I Dobrava and according to the marriage agreement he accepted Christianity together with his people in a latin ceremony. The first determined step was made on the way of spreading Christianity among the people on Polish historical lands.

The process of introduction Christianity in Kievan Rus was much more complicated and long-lasting, which was preceded by Volodymyr’s effort to unite the belief of heathens of different eastern-Slavonic tribes and to create a place of heathen’s gods in Kyiv. Having obtained the power, he, according to the source „The story of the past years”, „[…] placed the gods on the hill behind the house yard: The wooden Perun, and his head is silver, his mustache is golden, and Horsa, and Dazhbog, and Strybog, and Symaragl, and Mokosh. And they were brought sacrifices, being called gods, and their sons were brought to them […]”[31] However, later the prince understood, the grandparents’ heathens’ faith as a source of state-formation has completely exhausted itself.

Choosing a single religion, Kyiv governor stopped on eastern, Greek option of Christianity, which corresponded to social-economical state and political form of the Kievan Rus community in the best way. According to the chronicles’ testimony, the Christianity in Kievan Rus was introduced in 988. It was preceded by the Kievan warriors’ taking Korsun (Hersones) in Crimea, which belonged to Byzantium. Here the prince Volodymyr demanded to marry Ann – the sister of visantian emperors Vasyl and Kostyantyn. This marriage, which was unwillingly agreed by visantian governors led to Volodymyr’s baptizing, and after coming back to Kyiv – the baptizing of Kyiv citizens in the Dnieper. The same action happened in Novgorod. This was the event of a special cultural and political significance, which placed Kievan Rus on the same level with other Christian states of Europe. At the same time, the choice of western (catholic) variant made by Meshko I and eastern (Orthodox) variant of Christianity made by Volodymyr Svyatoslavovych independently from their will and desire, created the ground for the future civilized split of Slavonic world, the consequences appeared in several centuries and they are felt nowadays.

Tight enough contacts were established in the first decade of Kievan Rus and the Old Polish state existence, which were strengthened by marriages between the representatives of ruling dynasties. From time to time, their governors intruded into internal affairs of their neighbors, even using military operations – the most effective argument of medieval „diplomacy”. So, Boleslav the Courageous attacked Kievan Rus twice – in 1013 and 1018, trying to protect the interests of his son-in-law the prince Svyatopolk. After the death of Boleslav, the cruel fight for power started between his sons, Kyiv prince Yaroslav the Wise with his brother Mstyslav helped one of the candidates – Bezprym to occupy the throne in Gniezno. They went to a deep part of Poland with this aim, and according to the testimony of the chronicles writer, they occupied Chervensky cities and took many Polish people as prisoners. „In summer 6539 [1031] Yaroslav and Mstyslav gathered many warriors and attacked the Lendians, and again they occupied the Red Ruthenia (Grody czerwieńskie) and conquered Lendian land, and they brought a lot of the Lendians and divided them. And Yaroslav appointed his own people in Kievan Rus, and they are living there till nowadays.”[32]

The prisoners were spread on southern borders of Kievan Rus, which laid along the Ros river on the right bank of the middle Dnieper area in the first half of the 11th century. Interesting data connected with this event were received by archeologists during the excavations of the settlements, located on both banks of this river near Mykolayiv city – a contemporary city-fortress, nowadays covered with water. During their research untypical ceramics was found – pieces of pots with vertical top and horizontally bent circles of so-called „dorogochyn type”, typical for the monuments of the 11th century from Polish-Ruthenian bordering territory.[33] Besides, decorations typical for western Slavs were found in the ground necropolis which was located on the right bank of the Ross.[34]

The task of people migrating from Polish land was to protect southern borders of Kievan Rus from attacks of the Pechenegs and close to them tribes-turkish-speaking nomads, who from the end of the 9th century controlled the steppe zone of northern Black sea area and Azov area entirely. Trying to save them from the attacks of steppe nomads, kyiv princes, in particular: Volodymyr the Great and Yaroslav the Wise, took constant care of their strengthening through building fortresses. For this purpose they built so-called Snake hills – great wooden-ground constructions of up to 7 meters high, which length reached almost thousands of kilometers in the middle Dnieper area on both banks of the Dnieper. At the end of the 11th century, when the new Turkish-speaking nomads occupied the steppes of Kievan Rus and Ukraine – the Polovtsi, Kyiv princes managed to involve for protection of the borders the former „bad enemies”[35]: the Torkils, the Pechenegs, the Berendei, the Kovui and the Tyrpens. They created the union of the Black Klobucs (Czarne Klobuki) on the territory between the Stuhna and the Ros. This meant a change to their usual life style: they become a semi-stationary tribe. The city Torchesk was the administrative and political center of the Black Klobucs’ on the Ros, which remnants of the protection walls have been kept till nowadays.[36] According to the summary of the anthropological researches, particularly in the period of Kievan Rus, the people of the Ros obtained some „eastern” insignificant (Mongol-like) demographic influence, which can be noticed in the appearance of the Ukrainians, living in this region.[37]

Almost at once after the death of Boleslav the Wise and Yaroslav the Wise, the first signs of political separation appeared in the Old Polish state as well as in Kievan Rus. Later they led up to the split of the single state organism and to the creation of independent principalities. This happened approximately at the same time in both states – about the middle of the 12th century. The divided Poland, where at the beginning of the 13th century several centers of political life formed (Little Poland with Cracow, which during the times of Prince Kazymir I (10341058) obtained the status of the Polish capital; Silesia, Great Poland, Mazovia, Kuyavia, Lands of Sandomierz and Lubusz, Eastern and Western Pomerania). However, it managed to avoid being influenced and subjugated by the neighbors. At the end of the 13th century, the governor of Great Poland and Eastern Pomerania, Prince Pshemysl II, received the regalia from the hands of a bishop in Gniezno cathedral, having started the revival of the Polish state.

The destiny of Kievan Rus was different, it split up into several feudal principalities, whose governors fought against each other. Kyiv, Novgorod-Siversk, Pereyaslav principalities, which once were a core of „Russian land”, as a consequence of constant Polovtsy’s attacks, the migration of the population and princes’ fights, were economically weakened and as a result, politically. However, Rostov-Sudan principality, which occupied so-called „Zaleska land”, which was located between the Volga and the Oka in the far place of Kievan Rus. According to the words of a famous Russian historian V. Kluchevsky, „it was a country, which was lying outside the old, native Ruthenia and in the 11th century it was more foreign, than Russian country […] the muroms, the mers, and the ves [the local finnish-speaking tribes – S. S.]”[38]. Here, on the banks of the Moscow river, covered with thick forests, the prince Yuri Dovgoruky founded the city, which soon became the capital of the new state power – Moscow principality, Moscowia, Russian Empire, the USSR, and, at last, a new Russian state. Beginning from the the medieval period, the relationships with this state formation became an important factor in the political life of Polish and Ukrainian nations.

[1] See: Слов’яно-Руська доба, [In:] Давня історія України (in 3 parts), P. 3, Київ 2000, p. 94.

[2] There are opinions claiming that the Uelunzani, also known as the Wolinianie (from the name of the island of Wolin) and the Prissani belonged to the Pomeranian tribes of western Slavs, hose the descendants are contemporary Kashubs.

[3] H. Łowmiański, Początki Polski, P. 2, Warszawa 1964, p. 66, 106.

[4] See: Я. Д. Исаевич, Формирование раннефеодальных славянских народностей, [In:] Висляне и лендзяне в ІХ–Х вв., Москва 1981, p. 160.

[5] Л. Зашкільняк, М. Крикун, Історія Польщі, Львів 2002, p. 17.

[6] Fore more detailed info see: H. Łowmiański, Początki Polski, P. 2, Warszawa 1964, p. 106; Словяно-Руська доба, p. 96.

[7] See: Л. Нидерле, Славянские древности, Москва 1956, p. 155, 156; В. О. Ключевский, Курс русской истории, Москва 1987, P. 1, p. 103, 104 etc.

[8] Повість врем’яних літ: Літопис (за Іпатським списком), Київ 1990, c. 21.

[9] Л. Нидерле, Славянские древности, c. 155.

[10] L. Niederle, Slowanské Starožytnosti, I, Pǔwod a počátky národa slovanského, II, Praga 1906, p. 244, 271.

[11] H. Łowmiański, Początki Polski, P. 2, Warszawa 1964, p. 114200; P. Gałczyński, Zarys dziejów plemiennych Małopolski, „Rocznik przemyski”, XII, 1968, p. 51117.

[12] Повість времяних літ, c. 13.

[13] The same source, p. 17.

[14] П. П. Толочко, Роль Киева в эпоху формирования Древнерусского государства, [In:] Становление раннефеодальных славянских государств, Киев, 1972, p. 129; Б. А. Рыбаков, Киевская Русь и русские княжества ХII–ХIII вв., Москва 1982, p. 98, 99; М. Ю. Брайчевский, Восточнославянские союзы племен в эпоху формирования древнерусского государства, [In:] Древнерусское государство и славяне, Минск 1983, p. 102 and so on.

[15] Повість врем’яних літ, p. 13.

[16] В. В. Седов, Восточные славяне в VIVIII вв., p. 138.

[17] С. Сегеда, Деякі питання походження та етнічної історії населення Русі-України за даними антропології, p. 97.

[18] Г. Півторак, Українці: звідки ми і наша мова, Київ 1993, p. 77.

[19] О. Моця, Південна „Руська земля”, Київ 2007, p. 56.

[20] В. Скляренко, Звідки походить назва Україна, „Україна”, 1991,1, p. 20, 39.

[21] Ипатьевская летопись, [In:] Полное собрание русских летописей, P. 2, Москва 1962, p. 653.

[22] Near the Polans’ center, other ancient centers of state formation existed on historical Polish lands – in small Poland, Silesia, the sea area.

[23] Л. Зашкільняк, М. Крикун, Історія Польщі, p. 18.

[24] Повість времяних літ, p. 19.

[25] See: K. Buczek, Zagadnienie wiarygodności dwu relacji o początkowych dziejach państwa polskiego, [In:] Prace z dziejów Polski feudalnej ofiarowane Romanowi Grodeckiemu w 70 rocznicę urodzin, Warszawa 1969.

[26] Повість врем’яних літ, p. 47.

[27] Повість врем’яних літ, p. 121.

[28] Л. Зашкільняк, М. Крикун, Історія Польщі, p. 19, 20.

[29] Л. Зашкільняк, М. Крикун, Історія Польщі, p. 20.

[30] В. Д. Королюк, Грамота 1806 г. в хронике Козьмы Пражского, [In:] Краткие сообщения. Институт славяноведения, 1960, Issue 29, p. 23.

[31] Повість врем’яних літ, p. 133.

[32] Повість врем’яних літ, p. 237.

[33] О. Моця, Південна „Руська земля”, p. 74

[34] The same source.

[35] The Ancient Russian chronicles called nomads of the steppe zone in Ukraine as „bad ones”: The Pechenegs, and the Polovtsy, mostly using negative characteristics in description of the aggressive neighbors. „The same now and with us – Nestor the chronicler wrote – the Polovtsy keep to fathers’ laws; they pour blood and they are proud of it, eat the dead body and different dirt, hamsters and marry own step-mothers and obey other customs of their parents” (Повість времяних літ, p. 25).

[36] О. Моця, Південна „Руська земля”, p. 75

[37] С. Сегеда, Антропологічний склад українського народу: етногенетичний аспект, Київ 2001, p. 189.

[38] В. Ключевский, Курс русской истории, P. 2, Ст.-Петербург 1904, p. 366.